14Thus said the Lord,
Your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel:
For your sake I send to Babylon;
I will bring down all [her] bars,
And the Chaldeans shall raise their voice in lamentation.     Isaiah 43/14 Tanakh JPS 1985.

 

25It is I, I who—for My own sake—
Wipe your transgressions away
And remember your sins no more.     Isaiah 43/25 Tanakh JPS 1985.

 

Thus said the Lord, your Lord,
Your God who champions His people:
Herewith I take from your hand
The cup of reeling,
The bowl, the cup of My wrath;
You shall never drink it again.

I will put it in the hands of your tormentors,
Who have commanded you,
“Get down, that we may walk over you”—
So that you made your back like the ground,
Like a street for passersby.     Isaiah 51/22-23 Tanakh JPS 1985.

 

The prophet Isaiah’s name, meaning “God is salvation,” serves as the title of the book.Isaiah son of Amoz is called to prophesy in the year that King Uzziah dies (ca. 740 b.c.e. and continues his work at least until 701 b.c.e Of his personal history we know little. His wife, “the prophetess,” and his sons, whose names bear witness to his prophetic announcements, are mentioned. He has access to the kings of his time (Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah).

From: Tanakh JPS (1985) Summary “Isaiah” at http://taggedtanakh.org/Chapter/Index/english-Gen-1

 

When the city of Babylon rose up and took control of Mesopotamia from the Assyrians in 626 BC, the era of the New Babylonians, or Chaldeans, began. Led by their chief Nabopolassar, the Babylonians never again allowed the northern city-states of Mesopotamia have their independence. When Nabopolassar was succeeded by his son, Nebuchadnezzar II, he continued to ensure that the borders of Mesopotamia were safe from outside groups and even expanded the empire to include Phoenicians and Judah. Nebuchadnezzar II held captive the two succeeding kings of Judah, Jehoiachin and Zedekiah, and scattered the people of Judah throughout the empire’s vast lands. With over ten thousand Jewish people from the upper class and crafts trades being removed, this marked the official beginning of the Jewish Exile.

Under the direction of Nebuchadnezzar II, the city of Babylon was rebuilt to become one of the most magnificent cities in the entire Middle East and Mediterranean region. There did, however, remain many cities that were still loyal to the Assyrians. The Babylonian empire was constantly challenged by internal threats. After only five successions, the Chaldeans fell when an Assyrian loyalist king, Nabonidus who angered many of the Babylonian priests by replacing the Assyrian moon-god, Sin, above the Babylonian’s main god, Marduk in 555 BC. The Chaldeans, sensing the internal threat, called on the Persian Cyrus the Conqueror to take over, thus ending the Semitic rule of Mesopotamia around 539 BC. Cyrus soon moved the center of the Middle Eastern world to his capital of Susa. The power would shift again when the Greeks took control of the land and again when the Romans defeated the Greeks. For over two hundred years, Babylon stood as the hub of the Middle East, only to fall to the new wave of power and the return of the Indo-Europeans.

From: The Chaldeans (New Babylonians) http://www.sussexvt.k12.de.us/science/the%20history%20of%20the%20world%20secrets%20of%20the%20ancient%20past/Mesopotamia/The%20Chaldeans.htm

 

“In its widest acceptation, Chaldea is the name of the whole of Babylonia, owing to the fact that the Chaldeans had given more than one king to the country. In the strict sense, however, their domain was the tract at the Northwest end of the Persian Gulf, which was often called by the Assyro-Babylonians mat Tamtim, “the Land of the Sea,” a province of unknown extent. When these tribes migrated into Babylonia is uncertain, as is also their original home; but as they are closely related to the Arameans, it is possible that their first settlements lay in the neighborhood of the Aramean states bordering on the Holy Land.”

From: bibleatlas.org/chaldea.htm

 

23“Thus said King Cyrus of Persia: The Lord God of Heaven has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and has charged me with building Him a House in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Any one of you of all His people, the Lord his God be with him and let him go up.”     2Chronicles 36/2 Tanakh JPS 1985.

 

27See, a time is coming—declares the Lord—when I will sow the House of Israel and the House of Judah with seed of men and seed of cattle; 28and just as I was watchful over them to uproot and to pull down, to overthrow and to destroy and to bring disaster, so I will be watchful over them to build and to plant—declares the Lord. 29In those days, they shall no longer say, “Parents have eaten sour grapes and children’s teeth are blunted.” 30But every one shall die for his own sins: whosoever eats sour grapes, his teeth shall be blunted.     Jeremiah 31/27-30 Tanakh JPS 1985.

 

31See, a time is coming—declares the Lord—when I will make a new covenant with the House of Israel and the House of Judah. 32It will not be like the covenant I made with their fathers, when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, a covenant which they broke, though I espoused them—declares the Lord. 33But such is the covenant I will make with the House of Israel after these days—declares the Lord: I will put My Teaching into their inmost being and inscribe it upon their hearts. Then I will be their God, and they shall be My people. 34No longer will they need to teach one another and say to one another, “Heed the Lord“; for all of them, from the least of them to the greatest, shall heed Me—declares the Lord.
For I will forgive their iniquities, And remember their sins no more.     Jeremiah 31/31-34 Tanakh JPS 1985.

 

38See, a time is coming—declares the Lord—when the city shall be rebuilt for the Lord from the Tower of Hananel to the Corner Gate; 39and the measuring line shall go straight out to the Gareb Hill, and then turn toward Goah. 40And the entire Valley of the Corpses and Ashes, and all the fields as far as the Wadi Kidron, and the corner of the Horse Gate on the east, shall be holy to the Lord. They shall never again be uprooted or overthrown. Jeremiah 31/38-40 Tanakh JPS 1985.

 

1Behold, I am sending My messenger to clear the way before Me, and the Lord whom you seek shall come to His Temple suddenly. As for the angel of the covenant that you desire, he is already coming. 2But who can endure the day of his coming, and who can hold out when he appears? For he is like a smelter’s fire and like fuller’s lye.     Malachi 3/1-2 Tanakh JPS 1985.

 

22Be mindful of the Teaching of My servant Moses, whom I charged at Horeb with laws and rules for all Israel. 23Lo, I will send the prophet Elijah to you before the coming of the awesome, fearful day of the Lord. 24He shall reconcile parents with children and children with their parents, so that, when I come, I do not strike the whole land with utter destruction. Lo, I will send the prophet Elijah to you before the coming of the awesome, fearful day of the Lord.     Malachi 3/22-24 Tanakh JPS 1985.

 

10But the Lord chose to crush him by disease, That, if he made himself an offering for guilt, He might see offspring and have long life, And that through him the Lord’s purpose might prosper. 11Out of his anguish he shall see it; He shall enjoy it to the full through his devotion. “My righteous servant makes the many righteous, It is their punishment that he bears;     Isaiah 53/10-11 Tanakh JPS 1985.

 

Commentary:

In Jeremiah 31/34 G-d tells the Jewish people that He will forgive their iniquities and remember their sins no more in a time to come.

G-d tells the Jewish people when that time is. He begins in Jeremiah 31/27-28 with:

“See, a time is coming—declares the Lord—when I will sow the House of Israel and the House of Judah with seed of men and seed of cattle; and just as I was watchful over them to uproot and to pull down, to overthrow and to destroy and to bring disaster, so I will be watchful over them to build and to plant—declares the Lord.”

This is when the Jewish people return to the promised land and make it bloom again. The first time this could have happened would have been when the Assyrian/Babylon exiles returned except that the northern kingdom was inhabited by imported gentiles and the exiles had already been forgiven of all of their sins when the Chaldeans/Babylonians were defeated by Cyrus of Persia.

In Isaiah 43/14 G-d declares as the redeemer of Israel long before the Assyrians were defeated by the New Babylonians, or Chaldeans and the final defeat and deportation of the southern kingdom of Judah that:

“For your sake I send to Babylon; I will bring down all [her] bars, And the Chaldeans shall raise their voice in lamentation”

Which is accomplished by G-d raising up Cyrus of Persia as G-d’s anointed king (the gentile HaMoshiach) who defeats the Chaldeans/Babylonians and decrees that all of Israel in the Persian Empire that includes all of the lands of Assyro/Babylon can return to Jerusalem to build the Temple of G-d.

And G-d makes sure they are a Holy seed for the task in Isaiah 43/25:

“It is I, I who—for My own sake—Wipe your transgressions away And remember your sins no more.”

And history reveals that it was not the “time to come” because of the destruction of Jerusalem and exile and dispersal of the Jewish people by Rome.

G-d says in Jeremiah 31/38 that the time to come is:

“when the city shall be rebuilt for the Lord from the Tower of Hananel to the Corner Gate; 39and the measuring line shall go straight out to the Gareb Hill, and then turn toward Goah. 40And the entire Valley of the Corpses and Ashes, and all the fields as far as the Wadi Kidron, and the corner of the Horse Gate on the east, shall be holy to the Lord. They shall never again be uprooted or overthrown.”

And this is Jerusalem today. The time to come in Jeremiah 31/31-34 when G-d declares He will make a new covenant with the House of Israel not like the covenant He made with them out of Egypt which they broke but He married them anyway (and G-d does not divorce):

“But such is the covenant I will make with the House of Israel after these days—declares the Lord: I will put My Teaching into their inmost being and inscribe it upon their hearts. Then I will be their God, and they shall be My people. 34No longer will they need to teach one another and say to one another, “Heed the Lord“; for all of them, from the least of them to the greatest, shall heed Me—declares the Lord.
For I will forgive their iniquities, And remember their sins no more.”

The covenant for a time to come is “I will put My Teaching into their inmost being and inscribe it upon their hearts. Then I will be their G-d, and they shall be My people.”

“For I will forgive their iniquities, And remember their sins no more.”

G-d does not say how He will change the knowledge of the Jewish people of the Torah and how it should be interpreted by all Jews or how He will change the emotions and thinking of His people towards Him. There are a lot of hard feelings between many of the Jewish people and G-d.

G-d says that His forgiving their iniquities and remembering their sins no more will accomplish this putting of His Teaching into their inmost being and inscribing it upon their hearts.

If G-d does not use His power to change the knowledge and hearts of the Jewish people in His Teachings and towards Him the forgiveness of sins alone will not accomplish this.

The Jewish people and all of the different ways of interpreting the Torah by different branches of Judaism are to diverse and opinionated. Rarely is there an accord and meeting of the minds by the Sages of the Talmud, the Rabbi’s today and the people in general.

G-d has never changed the will of men and placed knowledge into their minds or changed their emotions and feelings towards Him in His power. He spent forty years in the desert with Moses and the Israelites changing the minds and hearts of the Hebrews with His Teachings He gave to Moses at Horeb.

And He became their G-d and they became His people at Horeb (Sinai). Just like the covenant to be made in a time to come:

“I will put My Teaching into their inmost being and inscribe it upon their hearts. Then I will be their G-d, and they shall be My people.”

So in the desert for forty years with Moses as the messenger of the Teachings of G-d and all the experiences of the people when G-d dwelt among the tents of the Israelites is what this means:

“I will put My Teaching into their inmost being and inscribe it upon their hearts.”

It is G-d’s way to use men for His purposes and in Isaiah 53/10 G-d crushes a man with disease so that if he made himself an offering for guilt he might see offspring and have long life and that through him the Lord’s purpose might prosper. This purpose which might prosper is not stated.

And in Malachi 3/22-24 the purpose of G-d which might prosper is revealed:

“Be mindful of the Teaching of My servant Moses, whom I charged at Horeb with laws and rules for all Israel. Lo, I will send the prophet Elijah to you before the coming of the awesome, fearful day of the Lord. He shall reconcile parents with children and children with their parents, so that, when I come, I do not strike the whole land with utter destruction.”

If Elijah does not reconcile parents with children and children with their parents so that they are all mindful of the Teachings of Moses G-d will strike the whole land with utter destruction.

This is the manner in which G-d tells the readers of the Jewish Bible that G-d’s righteous servant of Isaiah 53 is Elijah and his arrival when the promised land blooms again and Jerusalem has been rebuilt as it is today is the “time to come” of His covenant of sin forgiveness of the Jewish people.

Elijah comes with “the angel of the covenant that you desire” which is the covenant of sin forgiveness with the Teachings G-d gave to Moses at Horeb to change the minds and hearts of the Jewish people and reconcile families one member to the other to the practice of Judaism. Just like Moses. Elijah is the prophet like Moses and G-d’s righteous servant of Isaiah 53.

And the angel of the covenant is the angel of G-d’s Presence who is the person of the spirit of the Holy G-d that alights upon Elijah to bring the covenant of sin forgiveness. Elijah is the twig of the stump of Jesse that the spirit of G-d alights upon in Isaiah 11/1-2.

This is G-d’s covenant for a time to come. The Jewish people have returned to the promised land and made it bloom again and rebuilt Jerusalem. All they have to do now is to be mindful of His Teachings and heed and revere His name.

Then He will be their G-d and they will be his people, again. All is forgiven. And G-d will treat the Jewish people graciously and return to Jerusalem to have His Temple rebuilt.

The covenant is established and is eternal.

And in Isaiah 51/22-23 G-d passes the bowl, the cup of His wrath and puts it in the hands of “your tormentors, Who have commanded you, “Get down, that we may walk over you”—So that you made your back like the ground, Like a street for passersby.

And after the awesome, fearful day of the L-rd the Jewish people will never be overthrown and uprooted again.

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