ISAIAH 53 (Tanakh JPS 1985)
The witnesses of the righteous servant (verses 1-6)
1 “Who can believe what we have heard? Upon whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?
the arm of the Lord: his vindication and redemption. Jesus spoke a prophecy on more than one occasion that he would return in his generation and the eyes of those that pierced him with the spear would see it. It did not happen. His brazen oath to return was not vindicated. Jesus called out on the cross to G-d “why have you forsaken me”. Forsaken means to abandon forever.
These writings reveal that the L-rd is with me and His arm of redemption is upon me. The redemption of the Jewish people begins with recognizing that I am Elijah, the HaMoshiach.
The redemption that comes with sin forgiveness and the very best vindication of the L-rd imaginable. There is only one last prophet of G-d in the prophecy of the Jewish Bible and he is not Jesus or Mohammad. He is Elijah. And I can deliver that message as no other man can. In the power and words of G-d and the interpretations by G-d of His prophecy.
2For he has grown, by His favor, like a tree crown, Like a tree trunk out of arid ground. He had no form or beauty, that we should look at him: No charm, that we should find him pleasing.
This could never describe Jesus. Everyone except for certain Jewish religious leaders found Jesus pleasing and charming. A wonderful holy Jewish man who never sinned.
Some of the first written interpretations or targums (ancient paraphrases on biblical texts) see Isaiah 53 as referring to an individual servant, the Messiah, who would suffer. Messianic Jewish talmudist, Rachmiel Frydland, recounts those early views:
“Our ancient commentators with one accord noted that the context clearly speaks of God’s Anointed One, the Messiah. The Aramaic translation of this chapter, ascribed to Rabbi Jonathan ben Uzziel, a disciple of Hillel who lived early in the second century c.e., begins with the simple and worthy words:
‘Behold my servant Messiah shall prosper; he shall be high, and increase, and be exceeding strong: as the house of Israel looked to him through many days, because their countenance was darkened among the peoples, and their complexion beyond the sons of men (Targum Jonathan on Isaiah 53, ad locum).’”
“We find the same interpretation in the Babylonian Talmud:
What is his [the Messiah’s] name? The Rabbis said: His name is “the leper scholar,” as it is written, “Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him a leper, smitten of God, and afflicted.” (Sanhedrin 98b)
“Similarly, in an explanation of Ruth 2/14in the Midrash Rabbah it states:
He is speaking of the King Messiah: “Come hither” draw near to the throne “and dip thy morsel in the vinegar,” this refers to the chastisements, as it is said, “But he was wounded for our transgressions, bruised for our iniquities.”
“The Zohar, in its interpretation of Isaiah 53, points to the Messiah as well:
There is in the Garden of Eden a palace named the Palace of the Sons of Sickness. This palace the Messiah enters, and He summons every pain and every chastisement of Israel. All of these come and rest upon Him. And had He not thus lightened them upon Himself, there had been no man able to bear Israel’s chastisements for the trangression of the law; as it is written, “Surely our sicknesses he has carried.” (Zohar II, 212a)
The early sages expected a personal Messiah to fulfill the Isaiah prophecy. No alternative interpretation was applied to this passage until the Middle Ages. And then, a completely different view was presented. This view was popularized by Jewish commentator Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo Itzchaki), who lived one thousand years after Jesus.
Rashi held the position that the servant passages of Isaiah referred to the collective fate of the nation of Israel rather than a personal Messiah. Some rabbis, such as Ibn Ezra and Kimchi, agreed. However, many other rabbinic sages during this same period and later—including Maimonides—realized the inconsistencies of Rashi’s views and would not abandon the original messianic interpretations.
Yet to this day, many rabbis persist in citing Rashi as the definitive word on how to interpret the righteous servant of the Lord in Isaiah 53. Others admit the weakness of this view and say that the passage applies to an individual. They usually cite the prophet Isaiah himself, King Cyrus, King Hezekiah, Josiah, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, Moses, Job or even some anonymous contemporaries of Isaiah as the one spoken of by the prophet.
No one cites the obvious individual that I have seen and the correlation between the purpose of G-d’s righteous servant and the purpose of Elijah in the book of Malachi. The man who comes with the angel of the covenant of sin forgiveness of the Jewish people G-d declared for a time to come in Jeremiah 31. Elijah. He brings the redemption. He is the HaMoshiach. He has to be described. Just as the twig of the stump of Jesse of Isaiah 11/2 has to be described.
Rashi’s commentary on verse 2, in his contrary opinion that the righteous servant is Israel the people, for my interpretation of the righteous servant being the descendant of David from Chapter 11, would read: “This man, before this greatness came to him, was a very humble man, and he came up by himself like a sapling of the saplings of the trees, and like a root: he came up from dry land, neither form: had he in the beginning, nor comeliness. Now shall we desire him?: This is a question.”
Shall we desire him? If the dry land were atheism and his form was a gentile (like Cyrus of Persia) under the Jewish law, the Halacha (in the beginning), would he be attractive to the Jewish people. No. And that is a description of me Keith Ellis McCarty and I am a descendant of King David through King Solomon of the tribe of Judah by virtue of the spirit of G-d alighting upon me in 2007 in fulfillment of Isaiah 11/1-2. I will convert orthodox when I reach Jerusalem.
3He was despised, shunned by men, A man of suffering, familiar with disease. As one who hid his face from us, He was despised, we held him of no account.
He was despised, shunned by men: Jesus was not despised and shunned by men. Multitudes followed him everywhere he went. Twelve men left their way of life to follow and care for him. He was loved and highly esteemed. He did have religious enemies and intentionally infuriated religious leaders at synagogue’s and merchant’s at the Temple. But they could not attack him because of his legion of followers.
This verse fits me today. And there will be many more who despise, shun and hold me of no account simply for declaring this truth: I am the Lord’s righteous servant described in this chapter.
a man of suffering, familiar with disease: Jesus wept one time. He is never portrayed as a man of suffering, familiar with disease. Yes, he suffered at death as did legions of others in his time but he was not a man of suffering during his life.
As a colon and skin cancer survivor with over twenty-two surgical scars from many different accidents including a gun shot to the abdomen, emotional scars from a dysfunctional home as a child, and 20 years of head and jaw pain from nightmares and grinding my teeth I am a man of suffering familiar with disease.
None of which prepared me for the suffering I have endured by the hand and power of G-d after I offered myself for guilt to HaShem (though He removed the nightmares and constant head pain).
4Yet it was our sickness that he was bearing, Our suffering that he endured. We accounted him plagued, Smitten and afflicted by God;
Yet it was our sickness that he was bearing, Our suffering that he endured: The sickness is not being righteous. They suffer the sickness of not being in right standing with G-d. I have suffered by the chastisement and punishment laid on me by the hand, words and power of G-d to make me suitable for His purpose (just as G-d does with Ezekiel). A purpose that includes making the many righteous.
Ezekiel is treated harshly and punished for 430 consecutive days. This punishment is for the sins of the House of Israel and the House of Judah which is the Jewish people. This is the same manner G-d prepares His righteous servant of Isaiah 53. In some translations of Isaiah 53 the words “Through the sin of my people, who deserved the punishment.” and “It is their punishment that he bears” are used instead of “you shall bear their punishment”.
Ezekiel does not relieve the punishment of the House of Israel and the House of Judah or their sins. It describes a great ordeal Ezekiel is being put through to make him suitable for G-d’s purpose to be a prophet to the Jewish people.
We accounted him plagued, Smitten and afflicted by God: This describes a man that G-d does not like, a sinner whose life is full of bad events, sickness and sorrows. It could never apply to Jesus.
A person with flawed features from birth was considered cursed and afflicted by G-d. King David would have nothing to do with the lame, blind and disfigured. I was born disfigured with no right breast with a smaller right shoulder and withered arm.
5But he was wounded because of our sins, Crushed because of our iniquities. He bore the chastisement that made us whole, And by his bruises we were healed.
But he was wounded because of our sins: I have been wounded, crushed, chastised and bruised by the hand, words and power of G-d to make me suitable for His purpose. That purpose includes being the messenger and herald of the new covenant of sin forgiveness to the Jewish people.
“By his bruises [or stripes] we are healed” means that the marks of the fire of refinement the L-rd has put me through have prepared me to be the teacher of righteousness and those who listen are healed of their sinful ways. It does not mean my bruises and scars (stripes) bore the sins of others.
6We all went astray like sheep, Each going his own way; And the Lord visited upon him The guilt of all of us.”
And the Lord visited upon him The guilt of all of us: I offered myself to G-d for guilt in return for long life and to serve His purpose. I accepted the guilt of the Jewish people as my own and G-d sentenced me to suffering chastisement and punishment by His hand, words and power until I was suitable for His purpose to make intercession for the many sinners through the teaching of righteousness and to be the messenger of the new covenant of sin forgiveness for the Jewish people. And much more.
Isaiah (verses 7-10)
7He was maltreated, yet he was submissive He did not open his mouth; Like a sheep being led to slaughter, Like a ewe, dumb before those who shear her, He did not open his mouth.
He was maltreated, yet he was submissive: Maltreatment is a part of being chastised and punished by the hand, words and power of G-d. It is necessary to break the will of a man and to cleanse, temper and calm his soul. It is a tedious slow process. G-d is the one who maltreated me not man. So I was submissive and did all I was told to do day in and day out. It is the same process as breaking a wild horse for riding, making a convict in prison obey the rules and making a recruit into a soldier in boot camp. The maltreatment is harsh physically and mentally and an emotional roller-coaster. Your soul screams. G-d created the emotions of a human being and a body that responds to them. His method of changing them requires pain and suffering. In nine years I have suffered mental and physical anguish every single day and night. G-d does not sleep and He is relentless. It is G-d’s way of tempering and cleansing the spirit and soul. It is a removal of self will to be made suitable for G-d’s purpose.
He did not open his mouth: Jesus talked until his last breath. In one Gospel Jesus is asked are you going to remain silent and Jesus talks verse after verse in answer to the question.
When G-d revealed himself to me in 2007 He took me from the world, the land of the living and material things. Alone, no more working, no phone, no car, no computer, no law license’s, no bank account, no credit cards, and no money without explanation to friends and family, silent as a lamb. Maltreated is an understatement to how I felt being chastised and punished by the hand and power of G-d.
8By oppressive judgment he was taken away, Who could describe his abode? For he was cut off from the land of the living Through the sin of my people, who deserved the punishment.
By oppressive judgment he was taken away: The judgement against Jesus by Pilate was “not guilty”. To wash his hands of the whole religious controversy Pilate asked the multitude that had gathered what they would have him do with Jesus. Release him or crucify him. The multitude said crucify him. This was not a judgement. He was not taken away he was executed by crucifixion as thousands of Jewish people were.
The oppressive judgement is being guilty and receiving a sentence of maltreatment, chastisement, punishment, bruising and crushing until suitable for G-d’s purpose. A purpose for which I have been given long life. I had the sins and guilt of Israel laid on me that I am not guilty of so that G-d could pronounce an oppressive judgement of maltreatment, chastisement, punishment, bruising and crushing, after I offered myself for that guilt, to be made suitable for G-d’s purpose and receive long life.
Who could describe his abode?: Jesus has a house in the Gospels but it is never described. “And it came to pass, that, as Jesus sat at meat in his house, many publicans and sinners sat also together with Jesus and his disciples: for there were many, and they followed him.” Mark 2/15 King James Version (KJV).
My abode is room and board in return for care and assistance to my elderly parents in a town home in Houston, Texas. What is special about describing my abode is that where I dwell G-d dwells. His presence does not leave me. At least until the third Temple is built.
For he was cut off from the land of the living: Jesus was removed not cut off from the land of the living.
G-d took me away from society and the material things of the world cutting me off from those living their lives with cars and phones and computers and houses and bank accounts and credit cards and money and jobs.
Ezekiel also had the spirit of the Holy G-d who is the angel of His Presence alight upon him and was cut off from the land of the living as he went through this process of refinement of soul and self to be made suitable for G-d’s purpose of being a prophet to the Jewish people.
“A spirit seized me and carried me away. I went in bitterness, in the fury of my spirit, while the hand of the Lord was strong upon me.” Ezekiel 3/14. “And a spirit entered into me and set me upon my feet. And He spoke to me, and said to me: “Go, shut yourself up in your house.” Ezekiel 3/24. “As for you, O mortal, cords have been placed upon you, and you have been bound with them, and you shall not go out among them.” Ezekiel 3/25.
Through the sin of my people: The people of Isaiah who are the Jewish people.
who deserved the punishment: I have been punished by the hand, words and power of the G-d of Israel to make me suitable for His purpose. That purpose includes being the messenger and herald of the new covenant of sin forgiveness to the Jewish people. It is for His names sake and His promise to them that He remembers their sins no more and for the building of the third Temple for G-d’s return to Jerusalem.
Ezekiel is treated harshly and punished for 430 consecutive days. This punishment is for the sins of the House of Israel and the House of Judah which is the Jewish people. This is the same manner G-d prepares His righteous servant. The words “Through the sin of my people, who deserved the punishment.” and “It is their punishment that he bears” are used instead of “you shall bear their punishment” in Ezekiel 4/4.
Ezekiel does not relieve the punishment of the House of Israel and the House of Judah or atone vicariously for their sins by lying on his side for 390 days for the House of Israel and 40 days for the House of Judah. For 430 days pinned to the ground.
And the Jewish people were not vicariously relieved of their punishment. The complete fall of Jerusalem and final deportation occurs in Ezekiel’s lifetime. It is figurative speech. Just as in Isaiah 53 where the man has the sins and guilt of Israel laid on him that he is not guilty of so that G-d can pronounce an oppressive judgement of chastisement and punishment, bruising and crushing, after he offers himself for that guilt, is really just for the man to be made suitable for G-d’s purpose.
I know what Ezekiel is going through in this punishment. I have experienced it. I cannot describe exactly what Ezekiel went through during those 430 days but I do know what 5 days was for me.
In the second year after the spirit and the person of the spirit of G-d alighted upon me and G-d first spoke to me in 2007 everything changed when G-d told me I was going to sacrifice for 5 days. I had not experienced any crushing, bruising, chastisement or punishment before this. And those are the very words from Isaiah 53.
As I lay in bed the cords of G-d’s power enveloped me. I simply could not move. G-d never stopped talking to me and was explaining to me everything that was happening. He showed me how His power could slowly crush my chest until I could not breath and He let the fear of that overwhelm me.
This only took a few hours of the five days. G-d is very creative and there was very little let up in this method of teaching me of His power, the scripture, the Jewish people, fear of Him and the level of pain He would lay on me. I saw His goodness and I saw His backside. A side no man wants to see and hear much less feel. G-d is fearsome and to be feared.
It changed our relationship, how I thought of Him and took a lot of the fight out of my soul. And this process has continued in many ways and experiences over the years. It is how I learned about creation, the scripture and mysteries of heaven while being made suitable for the purposes of G-d.
Ezekiel is told that he is suffering the punishment of the Jewish people. G-d then tells Ezekiel that “I impose on you one day for each year” of their punishment which is armies G-d says he raised up against them, destruction of the first Temple and exile for their disobedience to Him.
You shall bear their punishment really means I am punishing you as they have been punished to make Ezekiel’s forehead like adamant (flint); meaning as hard and tough emotionally as they are and to calm his temperament. To reduce his personal affront to their laughter at him and disbelief that he is actually speaking the words of G-d. To prepare him to be a prophet to the Jewish people in exile.
G-d and the person of the spirit of the Holy G-d have come to Ezekiel (Chapter 3/12-15 and 22-27) to prepare him to be a prophet to the Jewish people. The hand of the Lord of chastisement and punishment is infuriating his spirit. His power covering Ezekiel like cords. The Presence of G-d causes Ezekiel to fall to his face. His tongue is no longer his own for he speaks the words G-d would have him speak.
9And his grave was set among the wicked, And with the rich, in his death— Though he had done no injustice And had spoken no falsehood.
his grave was set among the wicked, And with the rich, in his death: Jesus taught that the rich man is almost always a sinner. Being buried with the rich is the same thing as a sinner making his grave with the wicked. This verse simply says the righteous servant of G-d was poor but dies a rich man. Jesus did not die a rich man. The righteous servant of G-d who is given the many as his portion and receives the multitude as his spoil will die a rich man.
10But the Lord chose to crush him by disease, That, if he made himself an offering for guilt, He might see offspring and have long life, And that through him the Lord’s purpose might prosper.
the Lord chose to crush him by disease: Jesus was never crushed by disease (or brought to grief by illness).
The people Israel as one have never been crushed by disease at the L-rd’s choosing. I agree with the sage Maimonides (Rambam) that Israel as one man cannot be G-d’s righteous servant of Isaiah 53. This view has many inconsistencies. Foremost is the idea of a collective offering of the Jewish people to G-d of themselves as a guilt offering in the holocaust as taught by Rabbi Tovia Singer who is an influential anti-Christian missionary and celebrated debater of Christians with his interpretation of Isaiah 53.
Rabbi Singer says “The offering of guilt in this verse is actually literally translated as guilt-offering.”
A guilt offering also referred to in English as a trespass offering was a type of Biblical sacrifice, specifically a sacrifice made as a compensation payment for unintentional transgressions. It was distinct from the biblical sin offering.
The transgressor furnished an unblemished ram for sacrifice at the Temple in Jerusalem, as well as (in cases of sins against holy items, theft, commission of fraud or false oaths) monetary compensation to the victim for their loss, plus a mark-up of 20% of the value to cover the priest’s earnings.
Rabbi Singer tells us that “The guilt-offering is a fire-offering in which all the parts are to go up in smoke and the hide belongs to the one making the offering. I mentioned before that during the Holocaust Hitler not only burned Jews in the ovens of Auschwitz but he also used their skins as lamp shades and their hair as stuffing for pillows. He sacrificed these people on the alters of ovens and kept their hides as his portion but not until he worked and starved them to death.”
This phrase “He sacrificed these people on the alters of ovens and kept their hides as his portion” seems to be a reference to Isaiah 53/12 “Assuredly, I will give him the many as his portion,….”
Rabbi Singer is saying that Hitler made a guilt offering of six million Jewish people who are unblemished ram guilt offerings to G-d and received as his portion human hides of the Jewish people from G-d. That Hitler is the man described in Isaiah 53.
His interpretation is that Isaiah 53 describes the suffering servant Israel who have never offered themselves for guilt to G-d and his explanation that the offering is done for them by Hitler making guilt offerings of them in altars of ovens is his best answer for a verse that does not fit his interpretation. The Christians also do this in different ways.
G-d created an animal sacrificial system of laws for many purposes for a primitive people and commanded the Jewish people not to sacrifice their children through His prophet. G-d never says these laws are to be applied to humans. Isaiah 53 describes a human being not an animal. G-d’s laws of animal sacrifice were just that. Animal sacrifice.
Rabbi Singer sums up his interpretation and commentary on Isaiah 53/10 with “So after the atrocities of WWII the L-RD’S purpose has prospered because the land that was sworn to us is once again being inhabited by its rightful owners and is awaiting the final ingathering.”
Isaiah 53/10 says that if the man described offers himself for guilt “He might see offspring and have long life, And that through him the Lord’s purpose might prosper.”
Rabbi Singer’s interpretation is that six million murdered victims of the Holocaust were made animal ram guilt offerings under the animal sacrificial laws of G-d and that through their deaths a purpose of G-d has prospered.
That G-d had Hitler offer G-d’s children as human animal sacrifices to Him for the purpose of Israel returning to the promised land. And the Christians believe G-d offered His son as a human animal sacrifice for the purpose of forgiving their sins and saving them to Heaven.
The purpose of G-d for the man who makes the many righteous with long life is found in Malachi 3. The teacher of righteousness reconciles the sons to the fathers and the fathers to the sons through the Teachings of G-d given to Moses at Horeb.
How all of those six million people were first crushed by G-d with disease or otherwise so that they would offer to be a guilt offering under the animal sacrificial atonement and worship laws is never explained. And six million is not all of the Jewish people representing the man Israel. Nor were these six million all people of a life of suffering familiar with disease (53/3).
The only time there was ever a collective agreement by the people of Israel was at Sinai when the Jewish people received the Torah and it did not include an offering of themselves for guilt. And there is no account that the Israelites were crushed with disease by G-d so that they would make such an offer.
This interpretation does not explain how the sins of the Jewish people can be put on all of the Jewish people; why such a covenant with G-d is made and left out of the Torah; why offering oneself for guilt is an animal guilt sacrifice applied to a human being and the man is given long life; or why this is a vicarious sin sacrifice so that the gentiles can share in the world to come.
G-d has shown me how he orchestrated my being shot in the abdomen. The bullet passed through my colon, bladder and intestines. I was eighteen and this is when the doctors said a tumor began growing in my colon based on its size when surgically removed when I was in my early forties shortly after the 9/11 terrorist attack on New York. I was close to death and seeing how grief stricken so many relatives were on the news I asked my father for the money to pay for a colon examination. The doctors finally found what was making me so ill and unable to eat. A malignant tumor the size of an ear of corn that had burst through my colon and I was bleeding internally.
To say it crushed me and my life is an understatement.
That, if he made himself an offering for guilt: There are no testimonies in the New Testament that Jesus offered himself for guilt to G-d.
My offering of my soul and self for guilt was an offering for long life. It has nothing to do with the animal sacrificial laws of G-d. G-d crushed me with cancer and near death so that I would want long life and endure an incredible degree and amount of pain for many years as He prepared me to be suitable to be a prophet to the Jewish people. It is the same process G-d used to make Ezekiel’s forehead as hard as flint to be a prophet to the Jewish people.
I offered myself for guilt to G-d and the offer was accepted. I did not know what an offering for guilt meant at the time G-d began speaking to me and revealing His power and the weight of His presence. G-d had to teach me the scripture first. One night G-d told me to read Isaiah 53 and when I finished He asked who I thought that was. I said I did not know and G-d said that is you. From there we went back to the first verse and He began to show me how I fit the description and Jesus does not as explained here. I did not know about Ezekiel or the suffering servant Israel at that time. I have learned many of these things as G-d has me type these writings. As He is doing right now in editing this writing and adding more information.
I cannot begin to describe how painful it has been and I have been through many injuries and sorrowful times. I became guilty of sins that were not my own and G-d sentenced me to chastisement, crushing, bruising and punishment until suitable for His purpose. Now my soul has been cleansed and tempered and remains in His power that envelops me always. I was not born with the soul of the Moshiach. G-d took my sinful soul and created the soul of the Moshiach while it rested in me. A soul G-d can dwell with and not be offended.
He might see offspring and have long life: Jesus died in his early thirties unmarried and without children.
My gunshot accident on a ranch in Texas that led to the cancer that crushed me also led to my marrying the girl who lived next door and we had three children.
The Lord (verses 11-12)
11Out of his anguish he shall see it; He shall enjoy it to the full through his devotion. My righteous servant makes the many righteous, It is their punishment that he bears;
Out of his anguish he shall see it; He shall enjoy it to the full through his devotion: Jesus did not come out of his anguish to make the many righteous through his devotion to G-d.
The anguish is the emotional and physical pain I have suffered by punishment in the power of the Lord of Hosts to make me suitable for His purpose. Being suitable for His purpose includes knowledge of the scripture and perfect communication between myself and G-d and the person of His spirit. I am devoted to G-d and His purpose. He has prepared me well through this process of refinement by punishment and teaching me the scripture.
12Assuredly, I will give him the many as his portion, He shall receive the multitude as his spoil. For he exposed himself to death And was numbered among the sinners, Whereas he bore the guilt of the many And made intercession for sinners.”
For he exposed himself to death: Jesus was not exposed to death. He died.
I was exposed to death by a near fatal bullet wound and colon cancer which had spread to my lungs. I was told I was going to die. G-d has told me that by His power I survived and by His power I will have long life. During the refinement of my soul and spirit He has exposed me to death as a part of my offering myself for guilt in vision and in the real world similar to the account of Jonah at the bottom of the ocean.
And was numbered among the sinners: Jesus was without sin.
I was numbered a sinner just like all men and was a sinner who did not know that G-d accepts repentance. I have been brought into righteousness with Him and now He is in charge of everything I do and say to make intercession for the many sinners through the teaching of righteousness and as the messenger of the new covenant of sin forgiveness for the Jewish people.
After World War II, the Jewish Publication Society began to consider a new edition of the Bible and the concept of a completely new translation gradually took hold and the task was begun in 1955.
Harry M. Orlinsky, Professor of Bible at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (New York) was editor-in-chief along with H. L. Ginsberg, Professor of the Bible at the Jewish Theological Seminary, and Ephraim A. Speiser, Professor of Semitic and Oriental Languages at the University of Pennsylvania, as fellow editors.
Associated with them were three rabbis: Max Arzt, Bernard J. Bamberger, and Harry Freedman, representing the Conservative, Reform, and Orthodox branches of organized Jewish religious life.
Copyright @ 1985 by the Jewish Publication Society.