6And the angel of the Lord charged Joshua as follows: 7“Thus said the Lord of Hosts: If you walk in My paths and keep My charge, you in turn will rule My House and guard My courts, and I will permit you to move about among these attendants. 8Hearken well, O High Priest Joshua, you and your fellow priests sitting before you! For those men are a sign that I am going to bring My servant the Branch. 9For mark well this stone which I place before Joshua, a single stone with seven eyes. I will execute its engraving—declares the Lord of Hosts—and I will remove that country’s guilt in a single day. 10In that day—declares the Lord of Hosts—you will be inviting each other to the shade of vines and fig trees.”     Zechariah 3/6-10 Tanakh JPS 1985.


9The word of the Lord came to me: 10Receive from the exiled community—from Heldai, Tobijah, and Jedaiah, who have come from Babylon—and you, in turn, proceed the same day to the house of Josiah son of Zephaniah. 11Take silver and gold and make crowns. Place [one] on the head of High Priest Joshua son of Jehozadak, 12and say to him, “Thus said the Lord of Hosts: Behold, a man called the Branch shall branch out from the place where he is, and he shall build the Temple of the Lord. 13He shall build the Temple of the Lord and shall assume ma- jesty, and he shall sit on his throne and rule. And there shall also be a priest seated on his throne, and harmonious understanding shall prevail between them.”     Zechariah Chapter 6/9-13 Tanakh JPS 1985.


19I am about to do something new;
Even now it shall come to pass,
Suddenly you shall perceive it:
I will make a road through the wilderness
And rivers in the desert.

20The wild beasts shall honor Me,
Jackals and ostriches,
For I provide water in the wilderness,
Rivers in the desert,
To give drink to My chosen people,

21The people I formed for Myself
That they might declare my praise.

22But you have not worshiped Me, O Jacob,
That you should be weary of Me, O Israel.

23You have not brought Me your sheep for burnt offerings,
Nor honored Me with your sacrifices.
I have not burdened you with meal offerings,
Nor wearied you about frankincense.

24You have not bought Me fragrant reed with money,
Nor sated Me with the fat of your sacrifices.
Instead, you have burdened Me with your sins,
You have wearied Me with your iniquities.

25It is I, I who—for My own sake—
Wipe your transgressions away
And remember your sins no more.     Isaiah 43/19-25 Tanakh JPS 1985.


34No longer will they need to teach one another and say to one another, “Heed the Lord“; for all of them, from the least of them to the greatest, shall heed Me—declares the Lord. For I will forgive their iniquities, And remember their sins no more.

35Thus said the Lord,
Who established the sun for light by day,
The laws of moon and stars for light by night,
Who stirs up the sea into roaring waves,
Whose name is Lord of Hosts:

36If these laws should ever be annulled by Me
—declares the Lord—
Only then would the offspring of Israel cease
To be a nation before Me for all time.

37Thus said the Lord: If the heavens above could be measured, and the foundations of the earth below could be fathomed, only then would I reject all the offspring of Israel for all that they have done—declares the Lord.

38See, a time is coming—declares the Lord—when the city shall be rebuilt for the Lord from the Tower of Hananel to the Corner Gate; 39and the measuring line shall go straight out to the Gareb Hill, and then turn toward Goah. 40And the entire Valley of the Corpses and Ashes, and all the fields as far as the Wadi Kidron, and the corner of the Horse Gate on the east, shall be holy to the Lord. They shall never again be uprooted or overthrown.     Jeremiah 31/31-40 Tanakh JPS 1985.


1Behold, I am sending My messenger to clear the way before Me, and the Lord whom you seek shall come to His Temple suddenly. As for the angel of the covenant that you desire, he is already coming. 2But who can endure the day of his coming, and who can hold out when he appears? For he is like a smelter’s fire and like fuller’s lye. 3He shall act like a smelter and purger of silver; and he shall purify the descendants of Levi and refine them like gold and silver, so that they shall present offerings in righteousness. 4Then the offerings of Judah and Jerusalem shall be pleasing to the Lord as in the days of yore and in the years of old. 5But [first] I will step forward to contend against you, and I will act as a relentless accuser against those who have no fear of Me: Who practice sorcery, who commit adultery, who swear falsely, who cheat laborers of their hire, and who subvert [the cause of] the widow, orphan, and stranger, said the Lord of Hosts.

6For I am the Lord—I have not changed; and you are the children of Jacob—you have not ceased to be.     Malachi 3/1-6 Tanakh JPS 1985.


Many biblical writers assume the existence of beings superior to man in knowledge and power but subordinate to the one God. These beings serve as His attendants, like courtiers of an earthly king, and also as His agents to convey His messages to men and to carry out His will.

These beings are clearly designated by the English word “angel.” The terminology of biblical Hebrew is not so exact. Malʾakh, the word most often used, means “messenger” (“to send”). It is applied frequently to human agents and is sometimes used figuratively.

Apparently for greater clarity, the Bible frequently calls the angel the malʾakh of God; yet the same title is occasionally applied to human agents of the Deity. Elsewhere angels are called ʾelohim (“god” or “gods”); more often bene ʾelohim or bene ʾelim (“sons of gods”) – in the general sense of “divine beings.”

They are also known as kedoshim (qedoshim; “holy beings). Often the angel is called simply “man.” The mysterious being who wrestled with Jacob is first called a man, then ʾelohim, but Hosea refers to him also as a malʾakh.

As a result of this there are some passages where it is uncertain whether a human or superhuman messenger is meant. The Bible also speaks of winged creatures of angelic character called cherubim and seraphim who serve a variety of functions. A further ambiguity is due to the fact that the Bible does not always distinguish clearly between God and His messenger.

Thus, Hagar encounters an angel but later addresses “the Lord that spoke unto her”. It is God who commands the sacrifice of Isaac; later Abraham is addressed by the angel of the Lord from heaven. The angel of the Lord appears to Moses in the burning bush, but through the rest of the story Moses converses with the Deity. So, too, in the Gideon story, Gideon speaks sometimes with God, sometimes with the angel of God.

Some scholars infer from this phenomenon that the angel was not regarded as an independent being, but simply as a manifestation of the Divine power and will. Others suppose that in the earliest version of these stories a human being was confronted directly by God, and that later scribes toned down the boldness of this concept by interposing an angel.

From: Angels & Angelology; Jewishvirtuallibrary.org (edited).



Zechariah’s prophecy did not come to fulfillment. The High Priest Joshua was in the time of the building of the second Temple and the true branch of David did not come. Dreams and visions and the prophecies of Zechariah cannot be relied on. Isaiah is the proven prophet. That does not mean Zechariah did not have this vision with the words spoken. It means G-d was using it for the people Zechariah would tell in his day. To give them hope and encourage the building of the second Temple. And also for this day when Israel’s guilt is removed and the true branch of David has come and there is a Temple to be built.

This is even true outside of dreams and visions where the word of the Lord has come to Zechariah. The word of the Lord who is the spirit of the holy G-d speaks G-d’s words to man. And it is here and elsewhere in Zechariah that clues are given that this is a prophecy for another time. There is no corroborating prophecy of a King and a priest on the throne. The office of the priest Arron was separate from the office of the King Moses. It never works. The King can be a priest as David was by declaration of the Lord.

Zechariah is given the main theme of the end time prophecy of the Tanakh for his time when the Branch did not come and there is no mention of G-d’s righteous servant Elijah and the Angel of the Covenant of sin forgiveness. The angel of the Lord tells Zechariah:

“For mark well this stone which I place before Joshua, a single stone with seven eyes. I will execute its engraving—declares the Lord of Hosts—and I will remove that country’s guilt in a single day.”

This is a reference to the new thing G-d said He would do of sin forgiveness for the Babylon exiles written of by Isaiah many years before the exile of Judah and destruction of the second Temple.

And this new thing became a covenant for a time to come in Jeremiah 31. A covenant of the forgiveness of the sins of the Jewish people which causes the teaching of G-d to be written on the hearts of those who revere and heed His Name and are mindful of His laws.

A covenant delivered by the messenger of G-d whose coming is with the angel of that covenant in Malachi 3. Elijah is the messenger and the angel of the Presence of G-d is the angel of the covenant.

“But who can endure the day of his coming, and who can hold out when he appears? For he is like a smelter’s fire and like fuller’s lye.”

The day of his coming is a reference to the day of the Lord who is like fire and lye in His anger and with His Presence is always the angel of His Presence who is the person of the spirit of the Holy G-d and the angel of the covenant.

All three come together. Elijah and divine beings. Just like the man who wrestled with Jacob who is called man and who is called G-d in Genesis and called a messenger in Hosea.